unii bands for outside deployments
Figure 3-6 shows a typical pattern. These coverage diameters depend upon the type of indoor environment. It can, in certain instances, also include various sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) such as arc welders or federal/military radar facilities. A mobility group defines a mobility domain of 1 to 24 WLCs in which a client would not be required to change IP address during a roaming event. If a higher data rate (such as 18Mb/s) was set to mandatory, only 802.11g clients would be able to associate to the APs. Jackman, S., Swartz, M., et al. The actual diameter of the coverage, as shown in Figure 3-7, depends on factors such as environment, power level, and antenna gain. A site survey should be conducted using the same frequency plan as intended for the actual deployment. For example, all users in a conference room can associate with a single AP because of its close proximity, ignoring other APs that are farther away but with greater free capacity. If the 802.11 MAC defers traffic that is not part of its own AP cell, this is considered interference. Client packets received by the AP are forwarded to the WLC with the CAPWAP status field filled in. It can, in certain instances, also include various sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) such as arc welders or radar facilities. The term dBm uses the same calculation as described in the dB section, but has a reference value of 1 milliWatt. Changes in AP power do not impact clients. These pass/fail profiles are best seen in the output of the show ap auto-rf radio ap_name command (see the following sample). Channel selection depends on the frequencies that are permitted for a particular region. The first set of variables on the Auto-RF configuration web page corresponds to the RF group. Wireless networks can be deployed for location management, voice, or data-only networks, or a combination of all three. Interference from another AP on the same channel is commonly called co-channel interference, and is to be expected in most 2.4 GHz 802.11 deployments, because there are insufficient non-overlapping channels to prevent some channel overlap from occurring. 1 Some EMEA countries, such as Denmark and Germany, are limited to 20 mW. 20 MHz channels on the 2.4 GHz frequency band. The reflector concentrates and intensifies the light beam in a particular direction similar to what a parabolic dish antenna does to an RF source in a radio system. The information provided in Table 3-2 and Table 3-3 should be used as a general guideline. With CSMA/CA, two APs on the same channel (in the same vicinity) get approximately half the capacity of two APs on different channels because of the shared wireless channel. Indoor and outdoor WLAN deployments each offer separate challenges in RF deployments that need to be analyzed separately. Additionally, and though this is NOT yet ratified, in the EU, both ETSI and OFCOM are also working to add 6GHz to their respective regulatory bodies. Altering power levels or channel selection can be done manually as described below, or the Cisco Wireless Controller can do this automatically via the Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms, also referred to as Auto-RF. The UNII-2 band was designated for indoor or outdoor operations, and permitted external antennas. For the US-based 802.11a standard, the 5 GHz unlicensed band covers 300 MHz of spectrum and supports 12 channels. The WLC has a centralized view of client distribution across all APs. Figure 3-11 Patch Wall Mount Antenna Horizontal Plane. Because the WLC, or a designated WLC (RF Group Leader), has system-wide visibility it can control how channels are reused to minimize co-channel interference. U-NII 2C (255 MHz) October 21-23, 2014 TCB Workshop 8 . Coleman, D. and Westcott, D. CWNA Certified Wireless Network Administrator Official Study Guide: Exam PWO-105. An RF signal has both an electric and magnetic field. Increasing the gain of the antenna can increase the distance and change the shape of the radiation pattern to be focused in specific directions rather than being radiated evenly. 1 The regulations of Singapore and Taiwan for wireless LANs are particular to these countries only for operation in the 5 GHz band. Portions of the 5 GHz band are allocated to radar systems, which allows WLANs to avoid interference with incumbent radar users in instances where they are co-located. The highest mandatory rate tells the AP what rate the client radios must be able to physically transmit at. This results in a smooth distribution of capacity across an entire wireless network. You can manually set the channel and transmit level for the AP from this web page. So, taking into consideration the example previously given in the dB section, if the power jumped from 1 mW to 100mW at the radio, the power level would jump from 0 dBm to 20 dBm. Figure 3-8 Coverage Comparison and AP Density for Different Data Rates. Appropriate AP power levels are essential to maintaining a coverage area, not only to ensure correct (not maximum) amount of power covering an area, but also to ensure that excessive power is not used, which would add unnecessary interference to the radiating area. Feel free to use these in your own presentations, please merely give attribution and if possible link back to this post on WLAN Pros website. Some sites have high noise backgrounds that could prohibit the use of one or more channels. How much overlapping WLAN coverage you set in the design of your wireless network depends on the usage, though with limited exceptions, all designs should be deployed to minimize retransmission and data rate shifting. Adjusts power levels upward if necessary for clients, •Sends neighbor messages on all channels at full power at configured interval, •Verifies neighbor hash on received neighbor messages, •Scans configured channels for noise, interference, and IDS/rogue detection and alerts if profile fails. 40 MHz channels on the 2.4 GHz frequency band. For the 7920 voice deployment, Cisco recommends that you have a Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) above 35 at all time in your installation. Increasing the gain of the antenna can increase the distance and change the shape of the radiation pattern to be focused in specific directions rather than being radiated evenly. Antennas are compared to this ideal measurement, and all FCC calculations use this measurement (dBi). All the FCC commissioners noted this was one of their next priorities. WCS also supports irregular shaped buildings by offering drawing tools to help organizations easily design and support WLAN deployments in such buildings. The 802.11a channel shows the center frequency of the channels. The web page also indicates the number of neighbors the AP has and the power thresholds for which it is adjusting. Your results can vary depending on the RF environment. First up, an overview of the current Unlicensed bands that will be available for users in the United States, thanks to the FCC. Although only one AP might be required for a defined area, Cisco recommends that you have two APs on non-overlapping channels with a received signal strength indication (RSSI) above 35 at all times in your installation for the purposes of redundancy and load balancing. Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) encodes redundant information into the RF signal. This information can be used to increase wireless infrastructure security by providing the location of rogue clients or APs. The controller learns about the necessary information for an effective RF channel/power plan via information forwarded by the APs in the RF network group. When planning a WLAN deployment, consideration should be given to future uses of the WLAN deployment. WLAN Radio Frequency Design Considerations, View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. If a higher data rate (such as 18 Mbps) is set to mandatory, only 802.11g clients are able to associate to the APs. These bands are also used by a variety of non-computing devices, such as cordless phones, low-power light bulbs, garage door openers and microwave ovens. The channels in the new frequency range (5.470-5.725 GHz) are 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, and 140 also require DFS and TPC.

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